how cement and concrete are made
Cement is the essential ingredient in concrete. It is a fine powder that acts as the glue that holds concrete together when mixed with water, sand and aggregates.
Cement is only a small part of the recipe for concrete, typically making up only about 7% to 10% of the concrete mix. The other basic components of concrete are sand, gravel (fine and coarse aggregate) and water.
Chemicals — called admixtures — are sometimes added during the concrete production stage to trap air, remove water, change the viscosity, and alter other performance properties. Producers enhance the bonding process of cement at the concrete production stage with supplementary cementing materials (SCMs), which come from industrial waste streams.
The core ingredients of cement (limestone, sand, and clay) and concrete (cement mixed with sand, gravel, and water) are among the most commonly available raw materials on Earth.
|Cement powder||Concrete's basic ingredients: (cement mixed with sand, gravel, and water)||Proportion of the various ingredients in a typical concrete mix|